Topic Sentence: Supports argument/ thesis and introduces CLAIM #1

Address Point: Sub-claim #1 statement

Back it Up/Evidence (Cite source)


Back it Up/Evidence (Cite source)


Closing statement/Transition

Use Academic Templates!

Our learned strategies will help to “Connect”- “Explaining Quotations, So What?, Who Cares?, Why Does this Matter?This will be helpful to extend your point.

Address Point: Sub-claim #2 statement

Back it Up/Evidence (Cite source)


Address Point:/Evidence (Cite source)




Closing statement/Transition

Use Academic Templates!

“Naming Your Naysayer”, “Agreeing and Disagreeing Simultaneously” and “Making Concessions While Still Standing Your Ground”

Address Point:Sub-claim #3 Illustration/Evidence (Cite source)


Illustration /Evidence (Cite source)


Closing statement

Continue with this general format until you have gone through all sub-claims for claim #1, then repeat for claims #2,#3, etc..

When you’re done with your body paragraphs…





Introduction StructureGeneral statement/ background about the topic.Overview of claims.State your argument/thesis.Use “metacommentary” templates to help guide your reader.Use a academic tone.*Bullet points are not indicators of the number of sentences in the paragraph.

Adding Metacommentary

  • In other words, _________.
  • What _____________ really means by this is ______________.
  • My point is ____________.
  • Essentially, I am arguing that _______________.
  • My point is not that we should _____________, but that we should _____________.
  • What __________ really means is________.
  • In other words, ___________.
  • To put it another way, _____________.
  • In sum, then, ______________.
  • My conclusion, then, is that ____________.
  • In short, ______________.
  • What is more important, ______________.
  • Incidentally, ________________.
  • By the way, _______________.
  • Chapter 2 explores _____________while Chapter 3 examines _________________.
  • Having just argued that __________, le us now turn our attention to ____________.
  • Although some readers may object that _____________, I would answer that __________

Conclusion structure

  • Opinion and synthesis of viewpoint.
  • Reaffirm argument/thesis.
  • Maintain formal academic language.
  • Avoid any conversational phrasing or tone.
  • Articulate the big picture of your argument.
  • *Bullet points are not indicators of the number of sentences in the paragraph.

Evidence and citations

Academic Language Templates

From Research Question 
to a Working Thesis

Note: Please make sure that in using these templates for academic language that you necessarily must adjust according to the expectations of your teacher. For example, when your instructor tells you that an essay should not use the first person, stay away from it; don’t use I, my, we etc. In addition, as you become proficient at correctly using these templates in your writing, you should be able to modify them appropriately to suit your purposes. These are models and starting points, not unvarying recipes.

  • You have created a research question
  • You have done a significant amount of research
  • Now what?
  • After surveying your research you should evaluate what it tells you.

This should help you determine your working thesis.

Here’s an example

  • My research topic was “Food production and the Consumer”.
  • My research question was “ How are food producers regulated and are they effective in protecting consumers?”
  • After researching I determined that consumer protections are not effective.
  • My working thesis then became: “Regulatory governmental bodies that are meant to protect American food consumers are ineffective”.

In some cases

  • While many students like to start with a working thesis because they see a big picture emerge easily.
  • Others, struggle- if you fall into this group, work backwards. Start with claims, evaluate as a whole and thencreate thesis.

Identify statement claims

  • Claims are like topic sentences, they are subject and opinion statements that help to support your overall argument/thesis.
  • Remember you will organize your paper by claims NOTsources.

Here is a sample of claim statements for the argument:

Regulatory governmental bodies that are meant to protect

American food consumers are ineffective.

Claim #1 The US public food policies protect large food producers.

Claim #2 Regulators fail to effectively safeguard the health and welfare of Americans.

Claim #3 The US government has not advocated policies that support environmental sustainability.

(Remember each claim mayhave many sub-claims)

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