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Please choose one question and write a 5000-word essay: first half: draw argument cross Africa continents talk broadly before narrow down into specific city examples, second half: specific city

Q1: Cities in Africa today are still shaped by the colonial encounter. Discuss with reference to up to two African cities of your choice.

Notes: how significant is colonial encounter shape African city

Njoh, Ambe J (2008) ‘Colonial philosophies, urban space, and racial segregation in British and French colonial Africa’, Journal of Black Studies, 38, 4, 579-599

Fourchard, Laurent (2011) ‘Between world history and state formation: new perspectives on African cities’, African History, 52, 223-248

Q2: If African cities are to become more liveable and sustainable, they will need to introduce formal land rights. Discuss how far you agree with this statement with reference to up to two African cities.

Notes: create, use, regulate of land

de Boeck, Filip and Sammy Baloji (2016) Suturing the city: living together in Congo’s urban worlds, Autograph ABP, London (Ch 8 ‘Ngaliema’s revenge: urban expansion, chiefs and the politics of land’)

Niemark, Benjamin et al (2018) ‘Peri-urban land grabbing? Dilemmas of formalising tenure and land acquisitions around the cities of Bamako and Segou, Mali’ Journal of Land Use Science, 13, 3, 319-324

Goodfellow, Tom (2017) ‘Taxing property in a neo-developmental state: the politics of urban land value capture in Rwanda and Ethiopia’, African Affairs. 116, 465, 549-572

Q3: Why do the majority of Africa’s urban residents live in poor quality housing? Discuss with reference to at least two African cities of your choice.

Notes: housing policy, incremental building, Slum housing, government public housing, Chinese investing in large scale housing project

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