Maria is a sedentary, 68-year-old woman who is overweight. She complains that her hands and feet are always cold, and she tires quickly when cleaning the house. At her most recent visit to her doctor, her blood pressure was 184/98 mm Hg. She has edema around her ankles and legs, and her physician is concerned about an echocardiogram that indicates Maria has an enlarged heart.
1. Identify two reasons why Maria will have tissue ischemia. How might this lead to hypoxia?
2. What are the two early and reversible changes that occur to tissue cells when they are hypoxic?
3. What specific type of cellular adaptation has taken place in Maria’s enlarged heart? What made you come to this conclusion?
REQUIRED TEXTBOOK: Norris, T. (2019). Porth’s Pathophysiology: Concepts of Altered Health States. 10th Ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN: 978-1-4963-7755-5
Please be brief with your answers-do not copy answers from the book-read the case study and answer in your own words-briefly! You are not required to cite as your answers should come from your textbook-it is a demonstration that you understand the content and the case study.
Follow this Example;
Case Study, Chapter 4, Genetic Control of Cell Function and Inheritance Marsha and Clement are both carriers of sickle cell anemia, a disease that is autosomal recessive. Their first child, Amelia, does not have the disease. Marsha and Clement are planning another pregnancy, but they are concerned about their second child having the condition. Clement’s father died from complications of sickle cell disease shortly before Amelia was born
1. What is the likelihood of Marsha and Clement having a baby with sickle cell anemia? What is the chance the baby will be a carrier of the disease, just like the parents?
The gene is recessive, so the parents will have a 25% chance of giving birth to a child with the disease. There is a 50% chance that the baby will be a carrier
2. Marsha suggested to the nurse at the local family planning clinic that if the baby were a boy, he might have a higher risk of developing the disease, just like his grandfather. How would you respond?
The disease is autosomal in nature, meaning the disease arises from an abnormality on chromosomes 1 to 22. These chromosomes are alike in both males and females.
- When Amelia, who does not have sickle cell anemia, grows up and marries someone who does have the disease, how likely will her children have the disease?
If Amelia has children to a father with sickle cell disease, the children will be carriers only.