Despite its remarkable growth and many achievements, the fieldhas also found it challenging to develop consensus explanations ofpersonality, psychopathology, and behavior change that provide asolid scientific foundation for the clinical practice of psychology.Scientifically verified explanations have emerged regarding manypsychological phenomena, but other aspects of the tremendouscomplexity of human psychology have been difficult to unravel and arecurrently understood only in outline form. This is particularly true formore complicated higher level processes that are often the focus ofpsychological treatment. Many basic processes of sensation,perception, cognition, affect, learning, and development areunderstood in detail, but explanations are much less complete formany complex processes such as the nature and development ofpersonality and intelligence, the nature and causes ofpsychopathology, and the mechanisms that account for behaviorchange and treatment effectiveness.Within professional psychology (PP), by far the most influentialapproaches to understanding personality, psychopathology, andpsychotherapy have been the traditional theoretical orientations.Standard textbooks that cover this material often take a chronologicalapproach to reviewing these orientations, starting with Freudian theoryand progressing through psychodynamic, behavioral, humanistic,cognitive, systemic, multicultural, and integrative approaches.

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