Using Chile as a case study, assess the historical circumstances that gave rise to the violation of human rights in that country and, subsequently, to the emergence of efforts to defend human rights, truth, justice, and memory. Your essay should address in some way the periods before, during, and after state violence. Your essay is not meant to be exhaustive of everything that we read or that could be said about this topic—that would take hundreds of pages—but it is meant to be a coherent synthesis and critical assessment of basic events and issues raised by the Chilean case. You will want to consider: Who are some of the key actors? Who was/is responsible for human rights violations? Who was targeted and why? What have been some of the challenges posed by the struggle for memory, truth, justice, and reconciliation? Remember that the purpose of this essay is not simply to answer these questions with facts (and your essay should not be a series of discrete answers); it is to argue for a particular way of interpreting history based on the facts. Thus, you must state your argument early on (ideally in the first paragraph) and then use the following paragraphs to support your argument with evidence from readings, lectures, and discussions. Each paragraph should lead logically from the one that preceded it. Simply summarizing or paraphrasing readings and lectures without analyzing their content and meaning will result in low grade. The more you can show us you have read about and considered the case in question, the better your assessment will be. Basic Guidelines for Citations You do not need to include a bibliography page unless you cite materials other than the books, articles, and films that are required for the course. If you cite any additional, outside sources, then a bibliography page is necessary. You may choose to use either MLA style or Chicago style, but we do want you to be consistent in your manner of citation. Secondary bibliography is NOT REQUIRED. Although a bibliography page is not required, we do require that you include parenthetical references to course materials. They should take the following form: (Stern 33), (Jelin 97), (Obstinate Memory), or (Lecture, August 5). Some Tips Please avoid lengthy introductions and get straight to the point. Because these essays are relatively short, you will not want to waste space. Write actively and synthetically to demonstrate your mastery of ideas and concepts. Make sure to demonstrate that you have read the course readings carefully and in-depth. You will do this not primarily through quoting but rather through succinct summary of arguments and main points that help you to fortify YOUR argument.

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