Regarding frameworks, in whichframeworks or political units is socialjustice applied?Social justice is flexible to diverse frameworks orpolitical units, such as state-nation, or smallerunits (due to decentralisation processes) andlarger units (due to globalisation processes).Is the State the fundamental politicalframework? Until some decades ago, it wasclear that the framework of social justiceadministration (and of other justices), wasabove all the state-nation, considered thepolitical unit par excellence. The theoryregarding justice and its institutionalimplementations were thought out anddesigned for that framework. Although it stillhas value, the original framework haschanged: it has fragmented inwardly due todecentralisation processes and hasoverflowed outwardly through globalisationprocesses.In many countries, especially to the extent inwhich democracy is being consolidated,processes of internal decentralisation arearising. That is to say, local or regional ordepartmental autonomies are createdaccording to the territory and other factors,thus improving the empowerment of thepopulations, such as efficiency in justiceadministration. At the same time on aninternational level, globalisation in diverseareas is affecting the life of all populations,even those that try to shield themselves bytaking economic, cultural and/or politicalmeasures of protectionism. Terrorism,migration, power of capital, global warmingetc. are some international subject mattersthat one country cannot resolve in and ofitself.Promotio Justitiae, n° 108, 2012/1 4Two examples are developed herein. First,during the twentieth century there was alarge social demand for greater economicredistribution to the interior of a State, whichcould thus become a benefactor by ensuringeconomic minimums and health andeducation for all its population. Now Statesare no longer economically autonomous andthe economic fortune of its populationdepends on what happens on the globalmarket. Likewise, redistribution is now also amatter of international agents (corporations,agencies –FAO, WTO, WHO, etc. – NGOs,etc.). Second, greenhouse gases –whichproduce global warming and other damages–and other contaminants, do not respectborders, retaining walls or exactingrequirements, as they freely roam throughoutthe world. They are the wandering,unwanted visitors that nobody wants toreceive; nevertheless, nobody can preventthem from entering their house.Both processes of decentralisation andglobalisation, hit upon multiple tensions.Therefore, both the theoretical bases ofjustice, as well as its practicalimplementations, should be redefined withthese new scenarios in mind. We shouldrethink roles and justifications for new localbodies (such as the States and theirdecentralised agencies) as well astransnational bodies (such as the UnitedNations and derived agencies or similar –Example: International Criminal Court,International Protocols regarding war,natural disasters, ecology, etc.).4) Regarding the solutions, which arethe adequate strategies for solving socialinjustices?The demands of social justice can be solved byutilising strategies that oscillate betweenconservative and radical aspects, keeping in mindmorals, process efficiency and results.How many strategies are there for solvingsocial justice demands? There are many andvery diverse solutions that can be categorisedin three large types: conservative, radical andintermediate. For example, when consideringthe topic of poverty we think abouttraditional and simplified answers from theultraliberal people, the communists and thosedefending the welfare State. The first groupbelieve that the solution is to promote thesystem of free competition: with the freemarket (free personal actions) there will notbe any losers, given that each one willendeavour to achieve and obtain themaximum benefit. The second groupconsiders that property and productionsystems should be restructured, prioritisingthe welfare of the community more than thatof the individual: common property willensure the welfare of each of its members.The last group accepts a compromise betweenfree individual choice and the communityperspective of society, allowing theredistribution of goods and services of theState to some degree. In the face of thedemands of gender, we can try to achieve asimilar classification: some feminists seekequality; others, that gender be“deconstructed” or eliminated as a category;others, that there be a positive recognition ofthe differences of gender.


conservative and radical aspects
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