FACTORS AFFECTING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Human development is the process in which the changes occur in all theaspects of an organism from conception to death. It is a natural process for eachand every child to grow. But it is observed that all children do not grow in thesimilar fashion. Some children‟s physical growth occur earlier than others, someIndividual differences in thedevelopment processDevelopment depends on maturationand learning Development is predictableEarly development is more criticalthan later developmentDevelopment involves socialexpectationDevelopment has potential hazardsHappiness varies at differentperiods of developmentare physically stronger than others, some are taller than others and so on. So far asmental development is concerned, some children have better cognitive ability,memory, reasoning, thinking ability etc. than others. All children also do not havesame type of intelligence. Some have more musical talents, others have moreintrapersonal intelligence, others also have more linguistic abilities etc. So,children differ from each other because several factors influence on theirdevelopment. Some of the important factors have been enumerated below:1) Hereditary Factors:- Heredity exerts an influence on human development.The child carries genetic endowments from his/her parents. It is geneticallytransmitted characteristics from one generation to the next. The physicalcharacteristics like height, weight, eye color etc. and psychologicalcharacteristics such as intelligence, personality, creativity and so on areinnately determined and hereditary. The genetic code provides the base onwhich brain and body grow and manifest in observable appearance andbehavior.2) Environmental Factors:- Another important factor of human developmentis the environment where an individual lives. The child lives and grows inhis environment. Environment consists of a wide range of stimuli and itprovides the necessary input and experiential base for development of thechild. Enrichment or impoverishment of the environment would producedifferences in his abilities. For example, a child may have inherited musictalent from his parents through transmission of genes, but he may not excelin music field if he does not get the proper environment and support todevelop his innate ability.3) Home Environment:- Home environment exerts tremendous influence onchild‟s understanding of the external world. It builds self-concept andprepares him to face the external world. The child begins to acquireknowledge through interaction with parents and other family members.During his early years of development, the behaviours of the child aremodulated by the home environment. The environment of the family can besupportive or stressful for the child. If it is supportive, warm andharmonious environment, the child develops normally. In unsupportive andstressful home environment, broken families or uncaring parents in thefamily, children may develop as maladjusted persons.
Development changes in the organism as a whole.