1. Early psychologists were medical doctors or scientists. By the middle part of the twentieth century, philosophers and theologians added their ideas to the study of personality. How would a viewpoint that encompasses these elements affect perceptions about personality?

2. Freud, Piaget, and others viewed life as a series of stages. In contrast, Fromm and Rogers saw it as a process. How could these differing viewpoints affect perceptions of personality?

3. Identification with a subculture in childhood and adolescence may help individuals become well-adjusted later. Using Sullivan’s idea of “chumship,” what does this help us understand about personality?

4. Murray saw life as a story about a person’s “needs” and “presses.” Explain Murray’s concept of personology as distinct from personality.

5. In what way, if any, is sex segregation in public schools different from racial segregation? Are there differences in the nature of the categories of gender versus race that make one type of segregation less objectionable than the other?

6. One of the ways cognitive psychology looks at the difference between genders is through gender schemas – organized mental structures that delineate appropriate male and female behavior. Gender typing is having strong views on genders that are hard to move. How is this phenomenon related to personality?

7. What have you learned about what blaming people for various illnesses and perceived weaknesses says about the society that propagates that type of attitude?

8. Some people always seem to be complaining about their health. They seem to find peace in what is called the sick role. Which cognitive factors are relevant to a person’s taking on this role? When are we more likely to feel pain or decide that our body is not functioning correctly?

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