One focus of victimology has centred on identifying and measuring the frequency (both annual incidence and lifetime prevalence rates) of various types of victimizations, such as stalking, date rape, and carjacking. Some research has focused on the related challenge of explaining why the risks of violent victimization vary so dramatically from group to group, especially by age, gender, social class, race, ethnicity, and area of residence (mostly as a result of exposure to dangerous persons because of routine activities as well as lifestyle choices). Another area of concern to victimologists is how the legal system (e.g., detectives in specialized squads, victim-witness assistance programs administered by the offices of prosecutors, and state-administered financial compensation programs) deals with victims in their capacity as witnesses for the government. Victimologists have documented how the interests and needs of injured parties have been routinely overlooked historically but are now being addressed because the victims’ rights movement has won concessions that empower victims within the justice system.

Environmental theory

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