As a rule, international bodies have not concludedthat violations must be ‘widespread’ or ‘systematic’to be ‘serious’. Provided that other internationalcriminal law requirements are met, they tend toconflate ‘widespread’ and ‘systematic’ crimes withcrimes against humanity. International practicetypically holds that violations which entail individualcriminal responsibility at international level areserious.Though the jurisprudence of authoritative humanrights bodies helps to clarify the meaning andapplication of ‘serious violation’, these bodieshave also used the term variously. They frequentlyuse modifiers such as ‘gross’, ‘grave’, ‘flagrant’,‘particularly serious’, or ‘egregious’, and often doso interchangeably; all these terms may be relevantwhen assessing whether a particular violation is‘serious’ for the purpose of the ATT.
Excessive use of force by police forces