The sociocultural dimension is especially important because it determines the goods, services, and standards that society values. The sociocultural force includes the demographics and values of a particular customer base.

Demographics are measures of the various characteristics of the people and social groups who make up a society. Age, gender, and income are examples of commonly used demographic characteristics.

Values refer to certain beliefs that people have about different forms of behavior or products. Changes in how a society values an item or a behavior can greatly affect a business. (Think of all the fads that have come and gone!)

The political and legal dimensions of the external environment include regulatory parameters within which an organization must operate. Political parties create or influence laws, and business owners must abide by these laws. Tax policies, trade regulations, and minimum wage legislation are just a few examples of political and legal issues that may affect the way an organization operates.

The technological dimension of the external environment impacts the scientific processes used in changing inputs (resources, labor, money) to outputs (goods and services). The success of many organizations depends on how well they identify and respond to external technological changes.

For example, one of the most significant technological dimensions of the last several decades has been the increasing availability and affordability of management information systems (also known as MIS). Through these systems, managers have access to information that can improve the way they operate and manage their businesses.

The economic dimension reflects worldwide financial conditions. Certain economic conditions of special concern to organizations include interest rates, inflation, unemployment rates, gross national product, and the value of the U.S. dollar against other currencies.

A favorable economic climate generally represents opportunities for growth in many industries, such as sales of clothing, jewelry, and new cars. But some businesses traditionally benefit in poor economic conditions. The alcoholic beverage industry, for example, traditionally fares well during times of economic downturn.

The global dimension of the environment refers to factors in other countries that affect U.S. organizations. Although the basic management functions of planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling are the same whether a company operates domestically or internationally, managers encounter difficulties and risks on an international scale. Whether it be unfamiliarity with language or customs or a problem within the country itself (think mad cow disease), managers encounter global risks that they probably wouldn’t have encountered if they had stayed on their own shores.

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