1) How can the centralized management feature of a computer network be used for training
purposes? [3 marks]
 
2) What are the seven essential elements to communication? Describe each one. [21 marks]
 
3) What are three advantages of a peer-to-peer network? [9 marks]
 
4) How would you describe the configuration of a server-based network? [5 marks]
 
5) What is attenuation? How is it measured for data communications? [4 marks]
 
6) Why is baseband signaling instead of broadband signaling used for data communication? Give
two reasons. [6 marks]
 
7) How does fiber optic cable send data? [3 marks]
 
8) Name the 7 layers of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model and describe function of
each layer. [49 marks]
9) Why does a bus topology network slow down when more devices are added to the network?
[10 marks]
 
10) How does a ring topology actively participate in distributing packets? [5 marks]
 
11) What does a hub do in a multipoint star topology? How do newer-generation hubs differ from standard hubs? [15 marks]
 
12) What are the hybrid technologies star bus and star ring? Discuss an advantage of each. [20
marks]
 
13) How does Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) work? [15 marks]
 
14) How is a switch different from a hub? How does a switch affect network speed? [15 marks]
 
15) What is a virtual private network (VPN)? [10 marks]
 
16) How does simple network management protocol (SNMP) work? [10 marks]
 
17) Illustrate all the fields of IPv4 using a diagram and explain them. [30 marks]
 
18) Fragmentation is the process to divide a block received into multiple blocks of some smaller
bounded size. Discuss why fragmentation is needed. [10 marks]
 
19) Explain how the Internet Protocol works with an example. [20 marks]
 
20) How does a TCP make a network more reliable? [18 marks]
 
21) Briefly explain any 5 common HTTP methods. [10 marks]
 
22) Discuss disadvantages of Voice over IP (VoIP)? [12 marks]

How does fiber optic cable send data?

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