Distracted Walking: Cell Phones Increase Injury Risk for College Pedestrians

Stavrinos, D.; Byington, K.W.; Schwebel, D.C. (2011). Journal of Safety Research, Chicago. 42.2:101

According to (CTIA, 2010) estimated that close to 300 million Americans currently own cell phones. The article state how conveniently technologies and cell phone is tremendous, but they pose a risk in certain situations. Almost 9 in 10 young adults admit to talking on a cell phone while driving, for example, making them the most likely age group to engage in this dangerous activity (Harris Poll, 2006 and Walsh et al., 2008). An accumulating body of literature supports the hypothesis that cell phone jeopardize the safety of drivers (Caird et al., 2008, Horrey and Wickens, 2006, Strayer and Drews, 2007 and Strayer and Johnston, 2001). There were two studies that had examined the risk of distraction to pedestrians in virtual environment. The first study, children pedestrians distracted on the phone were less attentive, less safe time between completing their crossing and the next vehicle arriving, experienced more collisions and close calls, and waiting longer before beginning to cross the street, than when undistracted (Stavrinos, Byington, and Schwebel, 2009). The Second study, adults distracted by a phone conversation took more risks in the virtual pedestrian environment than those distracted by listening to music or those who had no distractions present (Neider, McCarley, Crowell, Kaczmarski, and Kramer, 2010).

Is a Hands-Free Phone Safer than a Handheld Phone?

Ishigami, V.; Klein, R.M. (2009). Journal of Safety Research; Chicago. 40.2:157

In this article it showed that it has come to pass that cell phone use can be hazardous while driving, even though, jurisdictions making handheld phone use illegal while allowing hands-free phone use. One study showed that phone, regard less of what type, and has negative impact on performance in detecting and identifying events. Research do not have any support on the decision to allow hands-free use while driving. Although we use our hands and feet to drive, but our mind controls the driving. As William James (1890) noted, paying attention…” implies withdrawal from some things in order to deal effectively with others” (p.403-404).

Increasing Following Headway with Prompts, Goal Setting, and Feedback in a Driving Simulator

Arnold, M.L.; Van Houten, R. (2011). Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis; Malden 44.2:245-54.

A study on the effect of prompting, goal setting, and feedback on following headway of young drivers in a simulated driving environment and assessed any changes produced in following headway was associated with reductions in hard braking while on the phone or not using the phone. “One of the major contributors to collisions is a following headway that’s too short to allow the following driven to react appropriately to sudden braking by the lead vehicle” (Taieb-Maimon and Shinar, 201). “Cell phone use while driving has caused major concern in the driver-distraction literature (AAA foundation for Traffic Safety, 2008). Alm and Nilsson (1995) evaluated the effect of engagement in a cell phone task during a driving simulation and found that cell phone conversations increased reaction time.

Does Banning Handheld Cell Phone use while Driving Reduce Collisions?

Trempel, R.E.; Kyrychenko, S.Y.; Moore, M.J. (2011). Chance; Abingdon. 24.3:6-11.

Drivers’ distraction accounts for numerous of crashes each year. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration noted that “22% of injury crashes and 16% of fatal crashes involve driver distraction.” The exact numbers of crashes due to distraction is hard to ascertain due to variety of possible distractions. When you look around and notice other drivers talking, eating, applying makeup, adjusting radio, and many other things that cause distraction. There has been several studies that have founded that talking on cell phones if they be handheld or hands-free cell phones has increased the risk of crashes. According to Insurance Institute of Highway Safety reviewed “more than 120 cell phone studies founded that cell phone use has a negative effect on drivers’ performance.” Cell phone use increase drivers’ reaction time, speed and lane deviations.

Effects of Drivers Cell Phone use on Driver Aggression.

McGarva, A.R.; Ramsey, M.; Shear, S.A. (2006). The Journal of Social Psychology; Philadelphia. 146.2:133-46.

A report done in 2003 by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration had surveyed that 30% drivers use cell phones while driving. “A recent observational study reported an increase in driver cellphone use from 2004 to 2005 and estimated that as many as 974,000 vehicles on the road in the United States are being operated by a driver using a hand-held phone at any given daylight moment” (Glassbrenner, 2005). “Researchers have observed that engaging in telephone conversations adversely affects a driver’s ability to appropriately react to simulated roadway situations requiring change in speed or direction” (McKnight & McKnight, 1993), “ability to brake when following another driver who brakes” (Aim & Nilsson, 1195), and “ability to brake in response to a red light” (Strayer & Johnston, 2001) – “effects that appear to be greater in older drivers” (Shinar, Tractinksy, & Compton, 2005). Cell phone has become ubiquitous. One can see people talking on cell phones while shopping, walking, eating out, and driving. Driver’s grow on cell phone use has caught scientific interest, which researchers address that the effect of cell phone use on driver’s attention.

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Is a Hands-Free Phone Safer than a Handheld Phone?
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