Transducers• Interface between the ocean and the sonarelectronics• Converts sound to electrical impulses andvice-versa• Can be a linear, planar, or volumetric array• Transducer functions:– Transmit– Receive• Many transducers perform both functions24Applied Research LaboratoryTransducer Transmit Properties• Converts electrical signals to acoustic signals– Response given as:pressure at a distance for a given voltage or current drivedB re 1uPa @ 1m re 1 volt. Generally a function of frequency• Requirements/Considerations:– High power  low impedance– High efficiency– Amplitude and phase matched and stable for use inarrays– Low ‘Q’ for wideband operation25Applied Research LaboratoryTransducer Receive Properties• Converts acoustic signals to electrical signals– Response given as:voltage out for a given pressure at the transducerdBv re 1uPa. Generally a function of frequency• Requirements/Considerations:– High sensitivity– Low noise– Amplitude and phase matched and stable for use inarrays– Low ‘Q’ for wideband operation26Applied Research LaboratoryTransmit/Receive (T/R) Switch• Connects the transmitter to the transducerfor active transmissions• Receiver must be protected from the hightransmit power• T/R switch accomplishes this via switchingand isolation circuitry• Receiver can still be susceptible totransmitter noise coupling through T/Rswitch

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