Advanced Pathophysiology Across the Lifespan

Question 1                         

A nurse practitioner is educating a patient with a recent diagnosis of diabetes about the roles that glucose and insulin play in the disease pathology and the fact that glucose must enter the cell in order to provide energy for the patient. The nurse practitioner knows that which of the following processes allows glucose to enter body cells

                                                 Osmosis

                                                 Facilitated diffusion

                                                 Active transport

                                                 Diffusion

Question 2                         

A student nurse practitioner asks her preceptor about the origins of different tissues, and their cellular origins during the process of development. Which of the following statements by the preceptor best describes the process of cell differentiation?

“Cells of the hematopoietic system produce the appropriate body cells that are required at each stage of development.”

“A single stem cell differentiates into approximately 200 different types of cells.”

“A fertilized ovum undergoes a series of divisions, yielding many different cell types.”

“Cells differentiate into necessary body cells, peaking after conception, and ceasing near the time of birth.”

Question 3                         

The nurse practitioner is seeing a client who has an acute exacerbation of Crohn’s disease. The NP recognizes the fact that the disease involves the inflammation and irritation of the intestinal lining. Which of the following types of tissue is most likely involved in the patient’s pathology?

                                                 Simple columnar epithelium

                                                 Glandular epithelium

                                                 Simple cuboidal epthelium

                                                 Stratified epithelium

Question 4                         

A nurse practitioner employed in a hospitalist notices that a patient is experiencing muscle atrophy following 2 weeks in traction after a motor vehicle accident. Which of the following factors has most likely contributed to the atrophy of the patient’s muscle cells?

                                 High levels of insulin and IGF-1 in the patient’s blood during immobilization

                                 Denervation of the affected muscles during the time of traction

                                 A reduction of skeletal muscle use secondary to the traction treatment

                                 Reduced oxygen consumption and cellular function that ensures muscle cell survival

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Simple columnar epithelium
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