Evolution Medical Surgical nursing

  1. In ancient times, when medical lore was
    associated with good or evil spirits, the sick
    were usually cared for in temples and houses of
    worship.
  2. These women had no real training by today’s
    standards, but experience taught them valuable
    skills, especially in the use of herbs and drugs,
    and some gained fame as the physicians of their
    era.

4

  • In the 17th cent., St. Vincent de Paul began to
    encourage women to undertake some form of
    training for their work, but there was no real
    hospital training school for nurses until one was
    established in Kaiserwerth, Germany, in 1846.
  • There, Florence Nightingale received the training
    that later enabled her to establish, at St.
    Thomas’s Hospital in London, the first school
    designed primarily to train nurses rather than to
    provide nursing service for the hospital
  • Similar schools were established in 1873 in New
    York City, New Haven (Conn.), and Boston.

5

  • Nursing subsequently became one of the most
    important professions open to women until the
    social changes brought by the revival of the
    feminist movement that began in the 1960s.
  • During the late nineteenth and early twentieth
    centuries in the United States, adult patients in
    many of the larger hospitals were typically
    assigned to separate medical, surgical, and
    obstetrical wards.
  • Nursing education in hospital training schools
    reflected these divisions to prepare nurses for
    work on these units

6

  • Early National League of Nursing Education (NLNE)
    curriculum guides treated medical nursing,
    surgical nursing, and disease prevention
    (incorporating personal hygiene and public
    sanitation) as separate topics.
  • By the 1930s, however, advocates recommended that
    medical and surgical nursing be taught in a
    single, interdisciplinary course, because the
    division of the two was considered an artificial
    distinction. Surgical nursing came to be seen as
    the care of medical patients who were being
    treated surgically.
  • The NLNE’s 1937 guide called for a Combined
    Course of medical and surgical nursing

7

  • Students were expected to learn not only the
    theory and treatment of abnormal physiological
    conditions, but also to provide total care of the
    patient by understanding the role of health
    promotion and the psychological, social, and
    physical aspects that affected a patient’s
    health. While the integration of this approach
    into nursing school curricula
  • 1960s, nursing schools emphasized the
    interdisciplinary study and practice of medical
    and surgical nursing.
  • 1960s and 1970s, standards were developed for
    many nursing specialties, including
    medical-surgical nursing.

8

  • Standards, Medical-Surgical Nursing Practice,
    written by a committee of the Division on
    Medical-Surgical Nursing of the American Nurses’
    Association (ANA), was published in 1974. It
    focused on the collection of data, development of
    nursing diagnoses and goals for nursing, and
    development, implementation, and evaluation of
    plans of care.
  • A Statement on the Scope of Medical-Surgical
    Nursing Practice followed in 1980.

9

  • In 1991, the Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses
    (AMSN) was formed to provide an independent
    specialty professional organization for
    medical-surgical and adult health nurses.
  • . In 1996, the AMSN published its own Scope and
    Standards of Medical-Surgical Nursing Practice,
  • The second edition appeared in 2000 15. Both
    the ANA and AMSN documents stated that while only
    clinical nurse specialists were expected to
    participate in research, all medical-surgical
    nurses must incorporate research findings in
    their practice.
Evolution Medical Surgical nursing
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