1. The father of classical criminology is generally considered to be: 

a. Cesare Lombroso 

b. Jeremy Bentham 

c. Adolphe Quetelet 

d. Cesare Beccaria 

2. The philosophy that emphasizes “the greatest happiness for the greatest number” is known as: 

a. Hedonism. 

b. The principle of utility. 

c. The cartographic approach. 

d. The contrast effect. 

3. The doctrine whose central tenet is that the achievement of pleasure is the main goal of life is known as: 

a. Hedonism. 

b. The principle of utility. 

c. The cartographic approach. 

d. The contrast effect. 

4. The philosopher the most closely associated with the principle of utility was: 

a. Cesare Lombroso 

b. Jeremy Bentham 

c. Adolphe Quetelet 

d. Cesare Beccaria 

5. _____ specifically refers to the weighing of anticipated benefits of a given course of action against its possible costs. 

a. Human agency 

b. Hedonistic calculus 

c. Rationality 

d. Positivism 

6. _____ are known for the emphasis that they place on the scientific method. 

a. Classicalists 

b. Hedonists 

c. Structuralists 

d. Positivists 

7. Prior to the eighteenth century, explanations of crime and other human behavior tended to center on: 

a. Human rationality. 

b. Inborn traits. 

c. Social influences. 

d. Religiosity or spiritualism. 

8. Which of the following theoretical perspectives is based on the premise that human behavior is primarily hedonistic in nature? 

a. Classicalism 

b. Ecological Determinism 

c. Positivism 

d. The Italian School 

9. The 8th Amendment prohibits cruel and unusual punishment; this is most closely aligned with the ideas of which of the following? 

a. Cesare Lombroso 

b. Jeremy Bentham 

c. Adolphe Quetelet 

d. Cesare Beccaria 

10. _____ was the term used by Lombroso to refer to those whom he considered to be evolutionary throwbacks, biological inferior beings who resembled ancestral prehuman forms of life. 

a. Atavism 

b. Criminaloid 

c. Habitual Criminal 

d. Hedonist 

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