The block diagram of figure 1lays out a proposedhierarchy of NIST small force metrology, with a primaryrealization of force based on a combination of length,capacitance and voltage for forces below 10−5N. We begin thesection with a description of the electrostatic force realizationand how it is checked against the deadweight force. Theproblem of disseminating the unit of force through appropriatetransfer artefacts that can interface with the electrostatic forceis treated next. Finally, we conclude the section with a briefreview of our ‘larger’ scale deadweight system and its use inthe calibration of a transfer artefact for the verification of theforce readout of instrumented indentation equipment

the elastic response of individual double-stranded and single-stranded DNA molecules
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