Navigation is the process of directing a vehicle from one known place to other known place.
All navigational techniques involve locating the position of the vehicle being navigated in
relation to the known datum. Tracking of the mobile object whether moving in terrestrial
environment or in underwater environment is very important activity towards fulfilling its
mission. The process of acquiring/identifying the location of an object of interest is called
positioning. The example of one of the best known positioning systems is the Global
Positioning System (GPS). In this chapter, various terrestrial navigation and global
positioning systems have been described along with various classical under water positioning
approaches. In the underwater environment, avoiding collision of the Autonomous
underwater vehicle (AUV) with floating or fixed objects requires either prior knowledge of
the operating environment or sensing equipment for evaluating the environment in real time.
Having prior knowledge is not feasible for unstructured environments and therefore having
the sensing equipment is the only viable option. The sensing equipment in this case is the
sonar that is mounted on the AUV which scans the area in front and provides the images as
the output. These images are then required to be processed in order to detect the objects
coming in the path of the AUV in order to have safe navigation. Navigation sensor is a device
used to measure a property from which the navigation system computes its navigation
solution (eg. radio navigation receiver). In the subsequent paragraphs investigation of
underwater sound wave propagation characteristics and development of sonar range equation
are presented.

the navigation system computes
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