1. The tern “Hispanic,” created in 1970 by the U.S. government, groups together people from, or with ancestors from, 21 Central and South American countries that were once former colonies of Spain. Now people from these countries must identify as “Hispanic.” This speaks to dynamics underlying
1. One study found that the lightest-skin immigrants to the U.S. earn 16 to 23 cents more on the dollar than their darkest-skinned immigrant counterparts. In this case skin shade has been
1. In thinking about masculinity and femininity, sociologists recognize
|a.||there is one form of masculinity and femininity.|
|b.||there is one form of masculinity and many forms of femininity.|
|c.||there are many forms of masculinity and femininity.|
|d.||in nature there are just two gender categories.|
1. Research suggests that early childhood teachers are more accepting of girls’ cross-gender behaviors and explorations than they are of such behaviors from boys. Apparently, teachers believe that boys who behave like “sissies” are at greater risk of becoming homosexual and psychologically ill-adjusted than are girls who behave like “tomboys.” The practice speaks to which one of the following dynamics?
|a.||biologically based differences between boys and girls|
|b.||innate differences between boys and girls|
|c.||the dynamics of socialization|
|d.||gender neutral approaches to education|
1. _______ are subpopulations within a society that are systematically excluded from full participation in society and denied equal opportunities to power, prestige, and wealth.
|b.||The foreign born|
|d.||The native born|
1. Sociologist define __________ as social distinctions based on culturally conceived and learned ideas about appropriate behavior and appearances for males and for females.
|d.||primary sex characteristics|
1. Which one of the following statements about minority status is false?
|a.||People that belong to a minority group are treated as a category, not as individuals.|
|b.||Minorities do not enjoy the freedom or the privilege to move within the society in the same way that members of the dominant group do.|
|c.||Minority status is a sociological term that applies exclusively to racial and ethnic groups.|
|d.||A minority may be the numerical majority in a society.|
1. When the painter Paul Gauguin visited Tahiti in 1891, he emphasized that there is “something virile in the women and something feminine in the men.” on the basis of the observation Gauguin concluded that
|a.||there is a fixed line separating maleness from femaleness.|
|b.||Tahiti was a backward society.|
|c.||the United States (and Europe) had made women into artificial creations.|
|d.||homosexuality was acceptable in that society.|
1. In the U.S. sexual relationships between enslaved women and their master produced not only “mixed race” offspring but also sons and daughters. Yet the system of racial classification assigned the offspring of these unions to the race of the mother. This situation speaks to the importance of ____________ in determining race.
1. Which of the following is true about race in Brazil?
|a.||Most people think of themselves as one race.|
|b.||Everyone fits neatly into a single racial category.|
|c.||Most people think of themselves as multi-racial.|
|d.||For most of its history, Brazil discouraged sexual relationships between whites and non-whites.|