Charles Spearman, who proposed that intellectualabilites were comprised of two factors : onegeneral ability or common ability known as ‘G’factor and the other a group of specific abilitiesknown as ‘S’ factor. ‘G’ factor is universalinborn ability. Greater ‘G’ in an individual leadsto greater success in life. ‘S’ factor is acquiredfrom the environment. It varies from activity toactivity in the same individual.Thorndike’s multifactor theory : Thorndikebelieved that there was nothing like GeneralAbility. Each mental activity requires anaggregate of different set of abilities. Hedistinguished the following four attributes ofintelligence :(a) Level—refers to the level of difficulty of atask that can be solved.(b) Range—refers to a number of tasks at anygiven degree of difficulty.(c) Area—means the total number of situationsat each level to which the individual is ableto respond.(d) Speed—is the rapidity with which we canrespond to the items.Thurstone’s theory : Primary mentalabilities/Group factor theory: States thatIntelligent Activities are not an expression ofinnumerable highly specific factors, as Thorndikeclaimed. Nor is it the expression primarily of ageneral factor that pervades all mental activities.It is the essence of intelligence, as Spearmanheld. Instead, the analysis of interpretation ofSpearman and others led them to the conclusionthat ‘certain’ mental operations have in commona ‘primary’ factor that gives them psychologicaland functional unity and that differentiates them


Visual-spatial intelligence
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