Women’s work

Economic development requires the participation of all members of the community who are able to participate. The smaller the number of individual contributors in the development process as it led to the decline in average per capita income in light of the steady increase in population, which is the major impediment to economic development. When the population reproduction is achieved by a percentage composite of three percent a year as is the case in most Arab societies, the problem becomes viable digital formulation so that the rate of development must reach three percent in order to maintain the standard of living and the current must be more than that even improves this level. ..

According to (Nahed symbolic) that the International Labour Organization focused on women’s economic rights and work to remove discrimination against women, and the provision of equal rights between men and women in respect of employment and occupation, and the effect of such efforts that the International Labour Organization issued a set of conventions and recommendations on the removal of the distinction between male and females with regard to employment and occupation, these agreements starts by some of the most important advantages of equality with men legally, has affected the situation on the labor laws in Arab countries Vtdment those laws explicit provisions governing the employment of women …

The ILO has adopted eleven international convention governing the global framework for the employment of women, namely: Maternity Protection Convention in 1919, and maternity protection in 1952, and Social Security in 1952, and the prohibition of night work in 1919, and the protection of lead poisoning in 1921, and the prohibition of night work an average year 1934, and the prohibition of underground work in 1935, and equality in wages in 1951, and the protection of women engaged in agriculture in 1958, and racial segregation (Employment and Occupation) in 1958, and the policy of use in 1964.

 However, many of the Arab countries did not join these agreements or joined to part of it and did not join the rest is up to the year 1975, for example, has not ratified any of the conventions of both the UAE and Qatar and the Democratic Republic of Yemen, and the rest of the world Arab from the mismatch occurred on one or two of these agreements except Tunisia, which signed agreements on seven of them. Nahed Ramsey believes that “this is the legal impact unfair to women’s work may impact on women’s employment in the Arab countries ratio, has been cited in the following proportions of the labor of women in some Arab countries, reaching economic activity of women in Algeria ratio of 0.92%, while more than 1% a little of both Jordan and the UAE, Bahrain, Iraq, Libya, and to exceed slightly 2% in Egypt and up to 3% just in Kuwait democracy and Yemen, and of 4.49% in Lebanon, and up to the highest level in Tunisia 5.43% while these ratios dwarfed by the employment rate Women in both the GDR 82% of the total women who are able to work as well as Bulgaria, where the ratio of up to 82.5%. (static 0.1983, S80-82)

 

The work of women in Islam

 

Refers Islamic preacher Sheikh (Mohammed Sharawi) The women wanted to raise the level of her life, including do not pay for its mission as a wife and a mother hugs the duty of their children not spared from this field is valid to work but in the context of … Islam does not prohibit women from working because Islam is realistic so that the God who created man and create the conditions knows that there are circumstances women may be forced to operate than have him determine the context of its work, which is visible from the story of Moses, while debit water contained in the Al-Qasas (verse 23): “When the Lord owes water found him Nation people watered and found two women without them Tdhudan “any Tmanaan what sponsor for the water So why exited? With this place and Rhode water, “they said no we water until a Alraa” that is, until the men end up watering their cattle and then empty the well or eye Faisalan there, then the girls also taken necessary extent and that does not mean that the necessary take them out they Tanasean their kind and Ihtka other type so Zlta In their place, then Allta reason out that there is a need paid to it, “chief of a large and Father” Vkonhma Ajiban on one asked them why Khrjtma of Petkma what Dmtma scared to scramble with men. (Abdel Aziz, 1986, p. 187).

 From here conclude that women in Islam is out to meet the need in the sense to be the exception, not the rule, and not women graduated from the quality is calculated so that the same man, and that it must be necessary in the next frame on a non-Shara and exciting body away from the finery.

Another view is offered by (Rashid Barrawi) believes that the Al-Qasas suggest to us that the work of women as possible in the light of social and economic necessity and because human society guy does not include alone and get out of my daughter Shoaib for watering sheep grazing include permissibility and say that there is a need for the old age Shoaib support weak that he could hire a man creamed sheep otherwise daughters and not so Bmtadhir in his time here it is rented Moses … and Islam laid down the principle of equality between men and women are both responsible for his “Men share, which acquired and women share, which also gained” women 32 case mandated understanding Whether inheritance permissible for them except share difference in favor of men for social reasons. (Abdel Aziz, 1986, p. 188).

There are practical examples of the era of the Prophet here is Khadija in trading and at the same time the wife righteous and mother best, it might be said that she did not come out the same with the convoy, but the principle remains the recognized where it is normal that the jurisdiction of their time to oversee the trade and requirements (Abdul Aziz, 1986, p. 189).

The essential role played by women and mildew is to provide security and stability for her and her husband and his family members, he says: “It is that He created for you wives from among yourselves to find repose in them and put between you affection and mercy” (Surah 30, verse 21)

(Satisfaction 0.1951, S20-23)

The work is a right of the rights of women to match the Aftrtha nature and not exposing it to harm  or forcing them to bypass the capillary border and social traditions .. and men practiced work commensurate with his nature. However, abilities .. and all of the men and women if led work, each share of gain .. He says, “nor Taatmnoa what Fadlallah by one another, men’s share of the acquired, and women share than gained, and ask Allah of His bounty, for Allah is knowledge of all things” (Sura 4, verse 32) .. and this verse decide the right to work for women and their share of the win like a man at work, both inside and outside the family, it should be good both for the woman or the man .. He says: (of a bad action is not reward, but like her, and good work of a male and a female is a believer will enter Paradise have provision where without the expense) (Surah 40 verse: 41) and the Almighty said: (believers and believers and some parents of some enjoin right and forbid what is evil, and establish worship and pay the Zakat and obey Allah and His Messenger those Sarahmhm God that God is Mighty, Wise) (Sura 9, verse: 71) .

He said Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him: (what to eat a good food to eat from the work of his hand) (Bukhari), which is clear from the talk that has been brought men without women.

Islam has ensured the rights of women in the humanitarian and social of education and care and protection of the work area in all phases of her life … In the economic sphere .. He gave her full civil Finance in all actions while coming of age, and did not make the one in their mandate from the father or husband? or head of a family etc .. did not object to Islam that women take social and economic responsibilitie
s as a director and responsible .. or working. (Sibai 0.1972, p. 4).

And women to participate in social life .. and work whenever you want in the appropriate functions and to continue her education .. and manages its affairs without mixing unless prevented, the terms of her marriage .. and not to her husband to stop her making progress .. If there is no clause in the marriage contract requires prevention .. and women to participate in public life in the community .. if Tbaya guardian .. in any way acceptable to the community.

 And inferred (satisfaction) pledge allegiance to the women of the Prophet peace be upon him on the conquest of Mecca .. testify, saying the Almighty: (O Olney if comes to believing Abayank that not Icherkn God thing, nor Asergn not Eznen not murdered their children do not come Bbhtan Ifteranh between the hands and legs and Aasenk Known in Fbayahen them and ask forgiveness of God that God is Forgiving, Merciful) (Surah 60, verse 12) .. (satisfaction 0.1951, p. 14).

 Islam came to, and women working with her husband or manages its affairs .. or participate in social work available and did not object to it .. but approved .. and develop valuable social, economic and ethical principles tuned values ​​of family and the principles of interaction between women and her husband .. and between them and the family and community members to work in the family is one of the most important Muslim women’s roles (fixed 0.1983, p. 90).

It is the function on Muslim women to work outside the home out in the era of historical examples of the Prophet, peace be upon him.

– Aunt Jabir bin Abdullah:

This woman needed to work outside the home she lives period (several divorce) Imam Muslim narrated in his Saheeh that Jabir bin Abdullah said: (divorced aunt She wanted to find Nkhalha Vzgerha man to come out, missed the Prophet, peace be upon him, he said yes, harvest your palm trees, it may be that you dont believe or do something known).

The conclusion that the woman had gone out to work in the life of the Prophet, peace be upon him and the Caliphs, but that was not the general principle, as the general principle is the decision in homes.

The exception is out of work or out of necessity, if the community in need of women’s work or the woman herself in need of this work so be it, but under certain conditions and in certain areas. (Wahba, 1983, p. 19).

 

Social point of view about women’s work:

Numerous social roles of women, they represent an important element of the community, with a large load is located in the progress and prosperity of any society, where members of the community is divided in terms of their point of view about women’s work into three directions:

– The first trend: In favor of women’s work.

– The second trend: Opponents of women’s work.

– The third trend: the budget and to mediate between the two views.

The first trend: In favor of women’s work:

Announce the supporters of this trend mentioned the issue of women that work and socio-economic necessity purely a must in this day and age, which is characterized by the rapid progress of civilization and the increasing growth in the various affairs of life research work has become a necessity of civilization and necessary supplies urbanization.

Women represent half of the society, and can not make them sitting at home are limited responsibility in washing clothes, cooking and serving the home and raising children, in their stay in the house and disable their capacities and capabilities and capacities in this way to disable the nation itself for the advancement of the level of work and production.

Must permission of the investment potential of women in society and use them to push progress and achieve the desired growth and welfare.

The social conditions change, and breadth of cultural growth and industrial progress and the spread of education rates provided an opportunity for women emancipation, education, work and achieve a great deal of economic independence, either before marriage or even during the marriage, along with the emergence of specialized in child care, medical services and the preparation of meals and household services married women helped to allocate a large part of her time to work, complete and absolute between men and women in all rights and duties Equality is advocated by proponents of this trend, and the first of those rights include the right to work in any area you like and any way you want, without any condition or restriction.

And supporters of women’s work and proponents of exit from the house educated and erudite categories alien culture in the community, where these groups look to women’s work and he came out in the oil country – from another angle – they see that the women go out to work to provide labor, and provide an income for the family, and served her time, which increases the contentment of women and their self-confidence, and reduces loneliness in some women and increases women’s culture and its ability to dialogue, helping to reduce educational wastage (Juweir, 1995, p. 81-86).

The second trend: Opponents of women’s work:

Supporters of this trend sees that the main work of women and the real function and its noble mission in life is to her dedication to her house, the work of women in the home of the Department of the Interior and child rearing in which affairs and do the pair Affairs of the basics of life that should not be overlooked, and the longer this function of the most important functions of women and responsibility should not be underestimated and its importance.

And supports the owners of this trend on the fundamentalist principle that says: (The ward off evil takes precedence over bringing benefits) The exit of women to work outside her achieve her and her community economic benefits but at the same time carries with it socially damaging than those beneficial economic interest, because it causes moral decay family disintegration.

Medical and psychological studies have shown that nurseries and kindergartens can not play a role in education, and in giving the child tenderness Aldavq fueled by the mother (Juweir, 1995, p. 89).

The function of maternity Taatsagr front of other jobs, even stated in effect that Paradise is under the feet of mothers, for bone mother’s role and responsibility.

Proponents of this view and believe that the functions of the physiological women hampered by working outside the home, differing physical and psychological man installed, and what is going on in women in menstruation, pregnancy and childbirth, and breastfeeding all that is not designated by the continuity in the work, but it is a disruption of the work itself, and that the work constitutes a In these cases an additional burden and double effort affects the physical and mental health alike.

This is in addition to the women’s work and out of the house accompanied by tensions and altercations, about who is spending the family, leading to an increase in divorce cases, and low birth rate, and the emergence of moral deviation in children.

The owners of this trend and believes that the country’s underdeveloped suffer real and convincing unemployment, there are millions of men who are looking for work do not find, however, held a massive media campaigns are talking about half the nation’s crippled, half imprisoned nation, half blocking production of the nation and demanding to bring the women to the fields of employment and production, and production there !! (Juweir 0.1995, S90-94).

 

The third trend: the budget and to mediate between the two views:

Members of this trend believes that balance is necessary, but inevitable in the case of women’s work and out of the house, where the habits may have influenced the recent past times, and was able to withhold from women Noor Scientific and Cultural Organization and helped it to the high illiteracy rate among women in most societies, Fazelt Women from the community movement have brought down the curtain thick of
underdevelopment and stagnation.

The Arab women today suffer many social pressures supercilious confused at the junction of the road, do not know where to walk or any course they should take, in order to save herself and keeps her family.

Valasr present and the rhythm of life rapidly changing constantly imposing them to do additional functions is the function of the mother of the wife, but some groups of women tried to ignore these new jobs, we considered something minor, the work is not a necessity for women especially if you were not a pressing need him either physically or moral , Faqahumic those groups of women these pressures total Bansrav to family life alone.

And some of them found new jobs in this incentive to get rid of the dependency and abandonment of marriage and motherhood and the popularity of the Faculty of the profession and indulge in external action.

Contemporary women have been stalking the combination of contrasting trends and conflicts with regard to marital and family matters and foreign missions.

The woman today has two jobs: one mother and wife, and the other employee, and you have to reconcile these two works bilateral.

From this point the owners of third trend is seen to the subject of women’s work and out of the corner of Islam University between work and maintain the legitimacy rules, Vmdnah Islam and civilization of ancient not satisfied for women is full harmony with nature laws, Islam is the only system that gave women all rights and looked at the natural function function Mother God Aftrha by making them have the first place, however, allowed her to leave her home for any necessity suffered, but also to seek knowledge and to worship and to help the Mujahideen as well, and all this in the framework of the Islamic regime and Islamic morals.

The adherents of this trend argue that work right is essential for women, but in areas that are commensurate with their femininity, not collide with Islamic values, and different owners of this trend with the former two-way in the implementation point, and the way to work, and the fields they see that the broker is the best things do not overeating or negligence The owners of this trend did not open their minds without condition and under, but suspended the terms and controls certain reservation Muslim community of his being and cohesion and commensurate with the circumstances and conditions, and these conditions and controls that sees the owners of this trend include:

– Must provide the appropriate environment, and comfortable in front of the means of working women to reconcile work at home and abroad.

– It must be consistent with the work of women in their physical, psychological and spiritual components, and result in safe work place and adequate time, and the manner in which it preserves dignity and avoids the pitfalls.

– Require that the needs of the community to work there holds the jobs are not needed community, and then the result is a loss of time and a waste of effort and energy on her account and Osthe not return to work.

– The consent of her guardian whatever work.

– Women must be prepared psychologically and intellectually to make them fully aware of the pattern of behavior that should be going for it and not influenced by cultures deviant.

And adopted the owners of this trend in the confined women’s work on certain areas of several Mntqat are: biological composition between men and women difference, and society’s interest lies in the division of labor and eternal specialization between women and men, and to maintain the dignity of women and maintenance, (Juweir, 1995, p. 97-103 ).

The motives of a woman going out to work:

Multiple studies dealt with the motives of women to work, has confirmed the results of Janta Williams Williams study (1977: 314-316) that the economic motivation and a desire to increase the standard of living is ranked first, followed by the desire for achievement and self-realization and personal merit, while you see Catherine Ross and others Ross et al. (1983a: 810) that the economic factor is ranked first as a process in the early stages of work, and after engaging the link becomes a work in itself has a more positive first importance …

Many Egyptian studies have dealt with the motives of women to work, ranking the desire for self-affirmation and a sense of responsibility primarily (Camellia Abdel Fattah 0.1967) while occupied by the need to estimate the first place in the study of the latest (Sawsan Abdel Fattah 0.1981) and occupied the need to acquire new experiences ranked first in the more recent study (Please Khatib 1986) and then it seems that the work has become a necessity psychological and social indispensable to women than to feel Pkaanha and value in society but that does not diminish the importance of the economic aspect of their work.

 

Points (Safwat Farag, and Nahed symbolic 0.1977) in one of the results of surveys that 75% of the study sample feel that the most important advantages of working is to increase income. (Chand 0.2000, p. 35).

 

Women may succeed in doing multiple roles efficiently and effectively have been exposed to the conflict between the roles, though (Ahmed Faraj) believes that women transition from the old to the new is not only during the conflict between the old, which clings to its existence and the new that is dawning, and inevitably means and not necessarily coexist the old with the new, despite their contradictions and conflict, this conflict is reflected in the women Baldoran together, the old role, which is linked to the family, and the new role that goes beyond the family to social and productive horizons creative spacious, hence become a contemporary women claim to fulfill all or most of the burden of the role old, meaning they are required to provide for a family and household and child care, a responsibility that is not shared by the pair, and share them in a minimalistic and in particular the work of this imperfect equality is a bug sense of bitter woman torn between two roles, and even a sense of helplessness in both often …

 

However, the multiplicity of women’s roles are not necessarily linked to exposure to a disturbance or problems, with stops feeling conflict convinced women, including its roles or not convinced any of them. When the roles are a product of the management and the pursuit of self-esteem and give meaning to life is positive and effective, and when the role imposed Do not choose where the conflict and poor compatibility and turmoil. (Chand 0.2000, p. 36)

According to (Camellia): Why women work outside the home? Question raised in all societies so field studies for workers and non-working women was conducted to determine the Atjahan towards work and the results were classified as follows:

(A) the economic situation: The in the presence of an urgent need among women to earn their strength or need family to women’s income some research has shown that the family can not, in some cases dispense women’s work because it is a physical need, while other research has shown that women’s work is not a necessity but help raise the economic and cultural level of the family …

In the case of the fact that women’s work is a physical need for the need of the family proved that the entry of workers pairs – the lower class of workers – less from entering non-working spouses (Siegel, 1963) and in the United States shows the search conducted on 3800 lady that 75% of the Group operates mainly from for the Country Assistance family (Pidegon, 1952) and showed other studies that women of the lower class working for the article more than they do working women of the middle class who reported that their enjoy the work is driven by the (Heer 1958), then we can say that the economic motivation for the work of women linked basically any class that whenever the level of the class down the economic motive strong and urgent …

(B) It is also among the motives of work to enjoy it as the value of self-assertion, in search

Ya
rrow found that 75% of working mothers of middle class prefer to work if they have the ability to choose, and in the search Hoffman found that 75% of workers enjoy an their work and would make a positive attitude towards him as between search that 25% of married women employed to receive satisfaction, and Yarrow decided to study 48% of working mothers of the middle class because they work for the first self-realization and then to use the special skills and provide services to the community and to satisfy their need to stay with the others …

C-A third motive is the desire in the company of others and satisfy the social need for romance, in a study (Fisher about depression in New York between one hundred worker answered 50% they had felt bored and boredom during their presence at home and children service and do housework tired and routine … Supports This view of what happened in the factory workers retire at the age of 55 years with giving them a generous pension has been found that many of them were waiting all night at the door of the factory to meet their friends when you go out and be Ioazbn to attend social events hosted by the factory.

 D-associated strong motivation to work with motivation for the collection and access to a university degree was conducted by White, Kenedy questionnaire to two groups of students of the College (Kansas City), one of whom prefer practical life and other favors domestic work were the first group recorded the highest scores in the motive for the collection of metrics, In Search (Kliger ) found that mothers employed Qtan stage in education than those made by non-workers, and the workers were often expect to continue working after marriage … This means that academic achievement and access to higher educational levels can be a motivation to work out can be considered as to work normally gained by women (Abdul Aziz 1986.183-185).

 

In 1952 he held a referendum in the United States – the so-called referendum Pidgeon – three thousand eight hundred lady members who work in the unions it turned out that three-quarters of the Group operates mainly in order to benefit the family …

 

In 1953 Hostic report stated that the results of the survey show that has been by e-five thousand women a recent graduate – that two-thirds of married women group were employed before but working to support the entry of their husbands …

The first result that could come out of this research is that economic motivation is linked primarily the class of women who work, so the economic motivation and a strong and urgent need is a top, the lower the operating environment.

 

Other research has shown the importance of economic motivation as a factor of raising the general level of family factors, motivation to work to reach the level it may be the finest in terms of education or to achieve some luxuries or for access to the highest social status.

 

In a study (Yarrow) from the mother of child labor and education in 1961 (79 p. 223) that the study of fifty As of the middle class and the middle class and upper who frequented sons at the primary school – which shows that 52% of mothers are employed in order to provide a healthy goals and cultural and process for family members can not be met only if the mother worked and contributed through their income in raising these levels …

 

It has been observed that the study of the motives of the work has been through referendums. Has said the economic motive behind other motives disappears unconscious. Therefore, “Taylor,” It is noteworthy that the motives of the work in our culture tend to be linked with money. People have solidified in their belief that money is the key to happiness and therefore, when they feel that there is a lack in their lives, they of course are demanding more money, and indicate the need for money without doubt they want something. But they do not explain to us what is this thing. (Fattah, 1984, S86-87)

Work for a large number of women has become a economic need and for others it is a kind of compensation and recreation gives them an opportunity to get out of the house and get rid albeit with little boys problems and household burdens .. The work has become a kind of release of psychology and women that work back to her stressful In the same time is required to prepare the food and meet the husband and the boys requests. (Essence of 0.1982, p. 86)

That women’s work home with high social value has contributed to the preservation of the Arab family happy thread .. The economic action. .hak Everyone is an adult in society, male or female, which would raise believes physical independence … Work is also the duty of every human being. .fla Must reach a balance between the social system and domestic economic activity occurs (scrub and Azzam, et al., 1999, p. 144).

 

Finish the discussion of the economic motive that can not reduce the importance of the material for a woman going out to work, especially the lower social class women … and the economic motivation may be rising standard of the family in general factors …

Various research results have shown the presence of other motives pay the modern women to go out to work. The most important of these motives is the motivation for the collection and enjoy working with the desire for self-assertion as well as accomplish the work of social life (Abdel-Fattah, 1984, p. 88).

Points (gorgeous) to be an important work in women’s lives, and highlights the importance of credentials including:

  1. The women’s work expands their horizons, and highlights and develop the elements of her personality, and a bulwark against the deadly ennui that bequeath him long survival, or (her spare you spend between four walls of the house)
  2. that the glory of the nation in frequent labor and women’s half of the society, and thus is not achieved by the glory that is half of the society unemployed.
  3. Help from-headed … may be not to support her Vtaul itself.

The husband dies, leaving her unable to work with children. And work to ensure their dignity.

Points (Tawfiq) that women go out and work away from home for many damage, including:

A lead to the fragmentation of family relationships, because working women can not reconcile their work and the proper education of their children either to leave them for another woman cared for or place them in a nursery in both cases does not find the child tenderness Umayyad and affection which filed God Almighty in the mother.

(B) loses a child who is not sponsored by the parents learn morality, good habits, and learn bad habits that destroy the future, but the future of society as a whole and if brought up in the hands of strangers him Kalmrabiyat or servants or otherwise.

C must be an initial matter that reduce their working hours until you find working women enough time to raising her children and caring for her home and measure things. (Static 0.1983, p. 82-83)

Problems and the implications of a woman going out to work

A – On the social level:

When we refer to the social problems we mean those obstacles and difficulties faced by working women as a mother and wife, and homemaker for the preparation of the future generation, that is responsible for the family and work at one time, therefore, to reconcile between the two tasks process

(Family and work) creates then new situations, or words again make them a man suffering from changes at the social level than experienced by the man, and represents the changes in the level of the family and in their role as mothers then forced to leave her child to do their work outside the home, are all social studies and psychological, the first teacher of human relationships mother, and the first intermediary between the child and the outside world, and abused submitted under felt throughout his brutality and alienation, as it is the first source of security with him because he does not understand anything about what is going on around him, including rai
ses Marlow and concern, and the kindness of Mother sponsor the prevention of this concern. .. and stop the mother’s success in the normalization of the child to her skill in disapproval unwanted behavior without him feel that he had lost her love.

And thus have a worse impact on the child’s personality is the absence of the mother or frequent or long his separation, during the first three years of his life … and even that solution Mother replace irreplaceable repeated Rotating the surrogate mother loses a child feeling of security and tranquility and is inherited in the same feeling bewildered and anxiety, and this is supported by many research of the most important research (Bolby BOWLBY) psychiatrist and director of a psychiatric clinics in London that the children who were revered for major cities that World War II Faihrmon of the care of their mothers and churning ordered them to individuals who treat them (wholesale) showed that these Children seem on their faces a sense of brutality and isolation and unable to make friends with other children or adults and accept love or shared with other people, as they appeared to have tendencies aggressive open to the community at a young age, and they disobey the calendar of other young formers and delinquent treatment … The result of the increasing number of women – well – increasing complaint among children from neglect and emotional deprivation, also increased the desire to birth control as a result of busy women work outside the home on the one hand and the desire to keep the economic standard of living for the family on the other hand …

Points (Muhammad Osama) to that of a third hand reported by Ms. Fethiye Trabelsi, where she said the evidence shows that whenever I got the mother a great deal of education whenever eased desire to have children, she prefers to limit the number of children and to reduce the incidence of pregnancy and breastfeeding because it is considered that these things may operated from participating in public life and affect the beauty influential not Trdah. (Na’ama, 1984, pp. 187-190).

B – on the psychological level:

All psychological studies confirm that women face a number of mental disorders as a result they go out to the fields to work, even though they went out to work willingly in the first place, as a result of the pressures of living life in the second place, and perhaps the most prominent of these disorders include:

  1. depression and guilt.

Women feel depressed and guilt as a result of pressure some of the psychological and social factors on the character, they are dispersed thought between their work and the need to Tadath to the fullest and between her family and her children and her home and the need to do a full duties towards them, that this situation makes them prey to constant psychological tension that threatens to build her personality is reflected on Slukitha and actions, in depressed and despondent at times, and is subject to a sense of guilt altogether these feelings is accompanied by some of the symptoms of secondary such as loss of appetite, insomnia, frequent crying … and if they intensified the depression turned into a disease as added dullness physical to the mental dullness, becomes the patient is unable to do any activity …

  1. Anxiety and Fear

Generates anxiety and fear when working women as a result of the following factors:

  1. The women’s social connections, most notably the family related, they are responsible for their children and maternity defended then, and that the inability to satisfy this impulse is born because of the work has always worried psychologically and emotionally troubled manifests itself in the form of multiple concerns.
  2. often than concern for working women come through the same working conditions, they need to comply with these conditions, and the need to conform with coworkers, to the extent the same need to preserve the professional status and prove their ability in the workplace …
  3. Strain

That working women, often under the pressure of a state of tension and emotion in all areas, whether at work or home to bear full responsibility, especially if they were either with children … and also in other cases for the girl that her concerns are the other terms of thinking about marriage and the future, Women shall be generally Since her childhood prone to emotions and permanent tensions, and working women suffer badly from a private tensions if they suffer from alienation and stress ,, practical and fatigue resulting from unsustainable to exceed its ability to prospect or inability to reconcile the many home responsibilities with work and responsibilities and obligations. ..

  1. Emotional and psychological conflict and crisis:

In all cases, “working married woman” be overtaken by delusions and trouble prone to fatigue and nervous as haunted by the concomitant aches and fatigue …. If the mother of the children are always thinking .. too pre-occupied preoccupied worried Khater …. fear for her children during her absence from home and their presence at the headquarters of the work … and would like presence in her home and her family … (Na’ama, 1984, p. 191-200)

The impact of women going out to work illustrated by the following:

 .1- On child care:

Some might expect that the mother children working outside the home are different from the parent is involved in children, failure to the other in the trends toward child-rearing and in training on it, but the views and research does not support this assumption, generally Research has used a pen and paper for the child’s upbringing and experience standards generally did not find differences in the degrees of employed mothers and mothers workers, among those research Search (Peterson) he found no differences in the relationship between mother and son for two workers and non-employed mothers, even though such research should be evaluated in light of the viability of the paper and a pen to cruel standards Deception …

Several research to worry and guilt that characterizes working mothers have been I have noticed, “Kliger” that Mufhossat of employed mothers have shown concern and a sense of guilt for their children as they decide they tend to compensate for their absence severe attempt to not better mothers.

As the “Fisher” also that many of the employed mothers are trying hard to prove that for themselves and their relatives, they did not neglect their children and they spend them spend more on average housewives actual hours …

Have between each of the (Lowell and Borcanal) to homes where the mother works tend to prefer regular ways decisive and encourage their children to independence …

We refer here to a local research done by Dr. Ham Buthainah Qandil in the study for comparison between the sons of workers and non-employed mothers in terms of some aspects of their personality has completed the following results:

  1. adaptation of the children of workers at least the greater the absence of the mother daily for five hours.
  2. The level of economic and social impact on the conditioning of children when the mother is operated and the higher level if the adjustment better.
  3. degree of maternal education has no impact on the adjustment of children if we compare between the sons of the employed mothers Nlun educated moderately and highly educated, but a clear impact when you compare educated mothers and women who did not Anlun any installment of Education, which means that the effect of mother’s education on children is not clear, but When educational levels vary enormously mothers.
  4. Search does not appear that the type of surrogacy impact on the adjustment of children – there is no difference between the children who were left in the care of relatives and those who were left in the care of servants.
  5. sons employed more ambitious than others (Abdel-Fattah, 1984, pp. 94-95).
  6. On the relationship with her husband:

It is the first study i
n this regard, the study conducted by Columbia University in 1934 about the problems of working mothers, and that the data collected by postal questionnaire which showed that two-thirds of wives working group felt that Sahpthen to their husbands and have improved as a result of the pleasure of going out to work. It also answered more four-fifths of the group that they attained sexual compatibility saturated.

Another search was conducted in 1959 to forty As is operated in New York and did not use a control group, has asked the group whether their work has an impact on the marital relationship they replied more than half of the group that this did not happen, and between seventeen checked who answered that it was his the impact of more than half of the collected that had a positive impact, and the bottom line is that only five group decided that the work was a bad impact on their relationship with their husbands …

Search “Fisher” and is in New York for marital relations between working mothers and moms is the strongest and most accurate this is the first research that have emerged in the field of engaged women, have been searching through the medical evaluation, psychiatry and home observations on the hundred lady half of the group their other external and half the work do not work outside the home and the whole group had completed at least two years in college were drawn from this research is the lack of differences between mothers and non-employed workers and their spouses with regard to sexual and emotional compatibility …

 

List of Bibliography

First: Arabic References

  1. Ahmed, Fatima (1990), Psychological Wellbeing (Flexibility for Working and Non-working Women), Alexandria, Jahilia Knowledge Dar.
  2. Al-Gaweed, Saoud Fares Saoud (2002), Consequences of Kuwaiti Woman’s Work and Planning for Challenge, Gulf and Arabia Studies Magazine, Kuwait University, 107, 49 – 105.
  3. Al-Jwair, Ibrahim Mubarak (1995), Woman’s Work Inside and Outside House (Vol. 1), Riyadh, Al-Obaikan Library.
  4. Al-Haddad, Yehia Fayez (1985), Woman and Work, 3rd Regional Conference for Woman in Gulf and Arabia, Kuwait.
  5. Al-Rodaiaan, Khalid Omar (2005), Saudi Working Woman and Family Expenditure, Social Sciences Magazine, Faculty of Education, Kuwait University, 3, 560 – 591.
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  7. Al-Shaya, Khalid Abdul Rahman (2005), Positions towards Soft Manpower Sufferings (Vol. 1), Riyadh, Valence Publishing and Distribution House.
  8. Al-Thufairi, Abdul Wahhab Mohammed (1996), Field Study to Poll Kuwaiti Women’s Opinions on Working Outside Home, Gulf and Arabia Studies Magazine, Kuwait University, 80, 69 – 99.
  9. Al-Abdul Qader, Ali Abdul Aziz (1995), Attitudes of King Faisal University Students towards Saudi Working Women, Social Sciences Magazine, Kuwait University, 1, 113 – 151.
  10. Al-Nabawi, Nayef Awdah (1997), Woman’s Work and its Impact on Children Upbringing, Education Magazine, Qatari National Committee, 22, 213 – 229.
  11. Basyouni, Suzan Sedqa Abdul Aziz (2004), Psychological Pressures and Relation to Psychological Exhaustion and Social Support of Working Woman in Jeddah, Faculty of Education Magazine, Ain Shams University, 28, 245 – 281.
  12. Thabet, Nasser (1983), Woman, Development and Correspondent Social Changes, Social Field Study on a Sample of Working Women in UAE (Vol. 1), Kuwait, That Essalasil Publishing.
  13. Jawhar, Saladin (1982), Arabic Contemporary Woman… to where (Vol. 1), Cairo, Afaq Al-Ghad Dar.
  14. Khalil, Rasmiya Ali (1979), Woman and Work, Referring to a Field Study of the Problems of Saudi Woman Working in Administrative Jobs, Economy and Administration Magazine, Faculty of Arts and Humanitarian Sciences, King Abdul Aziz University, 9, 281 – 313.
  15. Reda, Mohammed Rasheed (1951), Women’s Rights in Islam, Damascus, Islamic Office.
  16. Ramadan, Amal Bint Musleh (2006), Social and Educational Consequences of Working of Saudi Woman, Arabic Education Future Magazine, KSA, 40, 111 – 183.
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Second: Foreign References

  1. Anderson, Bernice, et al (1986), Mothers working outside home: What do national assessment results. Tell us? Eric Digest, ED276979.
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  5. Long, Bonita C (1995), Women and workplace stress. Eric Digest, ED401496.
  6. Nath, Baiju K (2008), Problems of female school teachers in Kerala, Eric Digest, ED506244.

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